Paul Ormandy

The accidental dxer

tiwai 4


The way I discovered DXing is probably no different to many fellow devotees. I’d had a keen interest in electricity even as a youngster, pulling apart perfectly functioning torches to see what made them work and borrowing library books on electrical basics. Around age 11, I started tinkering with crystal sets and after many dismal failures, finally made one that worked and after discovering that I could hear stations 100kms away, I was keen to hear more distant stations, thus by accident I became a DXer (though I never knew there was a name for it!).

By constantly improving the crystal set with a better aerial, earth etc, then upgrading to a ZN414, I was able to hear more distant stations all the time. Of course, night-time was best and there were many stations audible, though because of the size of the dial, I often had only a rough idea of the frequency!

The only other radio set in the house at the time was a modern Sanyo transistor job which could easily pick up stations 250kms away and I decided to hook up an external aerial and see just what I could eke out of it. I was amazed at just how many stations I could hear! And foreign languages too (the poor old thing was over-loading badly and SW images were omnipresent…). I would have liked a SW receiver though with my meagre savings I couldn’t afford any of the sets for sale in local second-hand stores.

I continued to dabble with my parent’s radio, fiddling with all the tunable coils to maximise performance. Then one of those precipitous events. At age 14 I went fishing with a school-mate (Lindsay Tsukigawa) and en-route to the local wharf visited his father’s printing business for the first time. Ito was a keen radio fan and tuned in all the various sports events around the country. He had a large valve radio and this funny looking 40 inch square perimeter-wired box for an aerial. This strange device piqued my interest and a flurry of questions followed. As it transpired, not only was there a name for this obtuse hobby, there was a club for DXers in Oamaru! Ito soon introduced me to a guy who worked right next door at Perpetual Trust, Peter Grenfell and it wasn’t long before I was invited to the meeting of the North Orago Branch of the New Zealand Radio DX League in April 1974.

I didn’t know what to expect at this meeting and took along my soldering iron and pliers (in case there were more radios needing “attention”) and after an explanation about the hobby, including the revelation that stations sent verification cards for reception reports, I was well and truly hooked, especially after logging Radio Netherlands on 9715kHz and sending off a report. .

Apart from Peter and Ito, other members helped shape my interest. Trevor Herron, Alistair Stewart, Ted Sutton and others talked about stations and countries I’d never heard of (let alone heard) and these guys were hearing US stations on mediumwave – incredible!

Thanks to Ted Sutton, my crystal set and ZN-414 radio were replaced with a Philips 7-valve set complete with shortwave and a whole new world opened up for me. Before long, all my earnings on after-school jobs were being blown on postage, and after saving for a few months, I joined the New Zealand Radio DX League in August 1974.

I had read of other DXers exploits in the North Otago Branch’s “Dial News” and the NZRDXL’s “DX Times” and was awestruck by the number and variety of stations that could be heard, especially on MW! Most enticing were the Yanks (as they were in a language I could understand) even though I was able to hear Australian stations with ease using my home-built loop and staying up Friday & Saturday nights waiting till midnight when almost all New Zealanders signed off. I was then able to log an Aussie every 15 minutes and 8 a night was easy going. (I had to modify the set to drive headphones so I could furtively DX without disturbing the family). Still, no US stations! I has assumed that I needed a better set or a better aerial.

Then one night, I stumbled across this strong signal with what sounded like an American accent… it turned out to be KNX Los Angeles 1070kHz! And that’s all it took, the ice had been broken and before long, numerous US and Hawaiian stations entered the log book. The chase was soon on for anything remotely foreign and I used DX Times logs as targets. Asians, Latins, Pacifica, Middle Easterners, all eagerly chased and caught.

During this formative period, I became a DXer, that is a chaser of exotic hard-to-hear stations and seeker of QSL cards as opposed to a shortwave listener. I have never been much of an SWLer, other than to listen to DX programmes or cricket commentaries from Radio Australia! (I found that I could combine fishing with listening to the cricket during summer… somewhere close to paradise!).

And if New Zealand was one of the best countries in the world for DXing, due to it’s relative isolation and favourable propagation paths, then Oamaru was (and still is) one of the best places in NZ for DXing, again due to it’s relative isolation, as well as lack of local radio stations (we only have 1) and low levels of electrical noise.


I was able to visit the shacks of other members of the North Otago Branch which boasted an impressive array of ex-military sets. Ted Sutton lived very close to me and Ted kindly encouraged visits to use his Marconi R-1155A. Peter Grenfell’s aerial system and Eddystone 680X were also trailed on occasion as was Trevor Herron’s Marconi. The performance of these specialist receivers was so far above my set that the hunt began for a better receiver.

Friends in Dunedin were aware of my interest and loaned me a modern Philips valve radio with much better band-spread on shortwave and better performance, still it wasn’t what I was after. At the time I was a member of the Air Training Corps and managed to convince the adjutant to loan me a ZC-1 (restricted to 3 – 6mHz) which was a great performer though lacked MW. Unsatisfied with the compromises, I needed more money!

It wasn’t until a job over the Christmas holidays at the local freezing works in 1975, that I had enough money to buy a decent receiver… the venerable Barlow-Wadley XCR-30. Now I had a receiver with real “grunt” and also a full-time job having secured an electrical apprenticeship with the Waitaki Electric Power Board. This receiver served me well for a number of years until early 1981 when a Kenwood R-1000 was purchased. This set was modified with a Radio West 1.9kHz mechanical filter to further improve performance and another modification to remove attenuation from the MW circuitry. The R-1000 is an under-rated receiver and would make a fine set for the average DXer.

Despite my primary interest in DXing, I had also passed my examinations as a radio amateur and was receiving the NZART’s magazine “Break In” which had a good “Buy, Sell or Exchange” section. I placed an ad for a Drake SPR-4 and before long had swapped the R-1000 for the receiver I’d wanted for 10 years!

It was still unmodified and thanks to Bryan Clark, I obtained modification details and a copy of the manual. The set was slightly tricky to alter though has been a fantastic performer ever since.

In 2000 I obtained a Sony ICF-SW55 primarily as a portable and also for checking parallel frequencies. This set has also been under-rated and has provided surprisingly good performance even on MW (and I haven’t taken the back off to “adjust” it yet!).

I’ve also experimented with aerials over the years and now have a combination of aerials, matching transformers, coax and earthing that makes the system as quiet as possible, both at Waianakarua and Oamaru. Please read the articles on the website.

Another valuable asset has been the MFJ-1026 phaser. When you’re running a great receiver with a great aerial system and you feel like you need something extra… this won’t disappoint.

Conventions, DXpeditions & AGMs

A huge positive for me right the way through my involvement, has been the camaraderie between DXers. It is a rather selfish hobby yet the willingness of DXers to share tuning tips and advice has always been a feature. Face-to-face meetings with colleagues continue to be looked forward to and have been the inspiration for attending various gatherings.

The North Otago Branch is very active, given the size of the region and in the 70’s and 80’s hosted many of the NZRDXL’s national Annual General Meetings. These events were very well attended by Administration Committee members from Invercargill, which gave me the opportunity to meet some of the leading lights in MW DX, i.e. Arthur Cushen, Merv Branks, Eric McIntosh, Ray Crawford & Sutton Burtenshaw. Bryan Clark from Wellington (later Auckland) was also a regular visitor and renowned DXer.

In December ’75, the family visited relations in Invercargill and a call to Ray Crawford resulted in a trip to Tiwai, a legendary place for exotic DX! Ray picked me up and his wife Raewyn provided us with dinner, then we collected Laurie Boyer and began the journey down to Tiwai. Ray had a Barlow Wadley and Laurie a Kenwood QR-666. And this was my first taste of DXing with a Beverage! The US stations were amazing and graveyarder KVEN 1450kHz was an easy log. I also made the first of many trips to 212 Earn St on this

In February 1976, I attended my first NZRDXL Convention at Otaki, hosted by the Wellington Branch. At this Convention I was introduced to the Drake SPR-4. Wow! What a receiver! Yet it would be another 10 years before I actually owned one.

With the tremendous help of other North Otago Branch members, I’ve organized conventions at Camp Iona, not far from Waianakarua, in 1994, 1998 and 2002).

My first DXpedition with the R-1000 was in April 1981, the search was on for a decent aerial site to give it a work-over. I hired a crib (a South Island colloquialism for “cabin”) at Taipo, some 10km South of Oamaru over Easter and used nearby fences and temporary longwires for aerials. The first night of listening on MW was woeful though SW showed promise and on subsequent mornings logged Gabon 4890, Iceland 12175, Kenya 4934, Namibia 4965, Azad Kashmir R, Paksistan 4980, Sao Tome 4807, Niamey 5020, Maldives 4754 & Maputo 4855

Then another precipitous event… the establishment of a Beverage site at Waianakarua… which is well documented here.

Mark Nicholls, Linda and myself spent a week at Tiwai in February 1984 and conditions were variable. Logs were taken of WRBQ 1380, WXVI 1600, WEUP 1600 500w, KRGO 1550 500w, ZNS-1 1540, WNBC 660, KFKA 1310, WSB 750, WDAY 970, KYW 1060, KFRO 1370, Vatican 1611, Tunisia 1566, Dubai 1481 & XESP 1070 1kW (flattening KNX!)

I’ve also been to another of the “hallowed turfs” of DX fame… in 1988 Mark Nicholls and I spent a week at Te Araroa… not easy to get to though well worth the effort. Logs include KSAI 936, Algiers 1422, KUIK 1360, WWNK 1360, KPOP 1360, KSAL 1150, KOFY 1050#, KPRZ 1210#, OBX4X R El Sol 900, KBLX 1400, KDIF 1440, LRA29 R Nacional, San Luís 1310, HCRC2 R Caravana 750, HJBI Ondas del Caribe 840, RNE Sevilla 684, SER Sevilla 792, CJVI 900, KPLY 1270, XERP 1330, KUTR 860#, CKRD 700#, CHQT 880#, KIXI 880#, KIEV 870#, KMJC 910#, KIQI 1010#, KBAI 1150#, KAHU 1060, La Voz del Tropico 4747 & R Globo 11805. (The # indicates stations logged in the wee small hours either as they signed on or changed fron night power to higher daytime power).

The Involvement Deepens

I have been a regular contributor to the “DX Times” since 1975 and have sub-edited various sections since 1985 (MW Mailbag, Broadcast News, Dxísimo and more recently a new section specialising in pirate and clandestine stations called “Unofficial Radio”). My interest in technical matters and DXotica has also resulted in various articles, bandscans and specialist lists, serving as the League’s Competitions Secretary in the 1990s and for a period I maintained the website.

I’ve also belonged to several other DX clubs (some briefly), New Zealand DX Radio Association, the Australian “DXers Calling”. International Radio Club of America and Danish Shortwave Clubs International. Now with the internet providing a catalyst for uniting DXers, the fraternal spirit is stronger and larger than ever. Actually getting to meet and greet international guests has been a very rewarding part of the hobby. Through the years we’ve hosted many overseas DXers both at home and at Waianakarua. Harry Weatherley, John Lund, Chris Martin, Rex Gillett and Bernhard Gruendl.

Somewhere in between all of this, in 1982 Linda and I were married (I took my R-1000 on the honeymoon!), Mark was born in August 1989 and Scott in July 1992, I moved house 5 times and I’m still working (indirectly) for the Waitaki Electric Power Board!

In 1996 Kelvin Brayshaw of the Radio Reading Service in Levin, asked if I could contribute a monthly radio programmefeaturing DX tips for their radio listener’s programme, centred around AWR’s “Wavescan” rebroadcast. This lead to the show being hosted by AWR and when requested by Radio New Zealand International, a tuning tips programme has been prepared every two weeks which has since been picked up by AWR for inclusion monthly on “Wavescan”, as well as on HCJB’s “DX Partyline” and more recently, fortnightly on Radio Korea International’s “Multiwave Feedback”.

The North Otago Branch, through the auspices of Peter Grenfell has long been involved in the League’s archives. The League has Peter to thank for the foundation and maintenance of the archives since the early 1970’s and for it’s final resting place at the Hocken Library in Dunedin.

I’ve recently taken over the role of archives custodian from Peter and they’ll be big shoes to fill! My interest in archives has been reinforced since David Ricquish initiated the radio heritage collection at You’ll find a large number of very interesting articles on the history of radio and DXing, particularly in the Pacific.

Early DX

The North Otago Branch had a “shack” for meetings and casual DX. The shack was on a reserve above Oamaru, around 150 metres above sea-level. Reception was very good with low levels of noise and several aerials to chose from. Initially, aerials at the shack ran through pine trees, and when they were later felled, a short wire was run to a set of rugby goal-posts about 50 metres away in the paddock (it was with this simple wire that I logged many good catches, including WIZM La Crosse WI 1410kHz).

In need of something more permanent and to maximise surrounding land, we obtained some telegraph poles and with the assistance of Stan Vincent and a truck, we dug holes and strung up a new antenna approximately 150 metres long in an Easterly direction.

This antenna also provided many good catches (best being Radio Trinidad 730kHz one night when auroras had flattened everything else) however, civilisation was advancing on us with new houses (and much increased levels of interference) debilitating the sites DX potential. The effects of new-found neighbours, rising rates and electricity costs, forced us to abandon and demolish the shack. Ahhh!!… the memory of fish’n’chip suppers and Muriel Bloxham’s scones..

I recall John Newman (a branch member resident in Twizel about 2 hours drive inland) inviting me for a spot of DX at the shack one night in 1975… John didn’t use the shack, he sat the loop on the roof of his car adjacent to the shack, and DXed with his Barlow Wadley inside the car. With this combination we heard numerous Yanks including KXYZ Houston TX 1320kHz at good levels.

Trevor Herron used to live around the corner from me and often gave me a ride to Club meetings. On one occasion, we drove to Lookout Point, about 200 metres above sea-level, high over the harbour, and with his car radio we were able to tune into several Yanks including KOB Albuquerque NM 770kHz at very good levels.

Such were the DX-properties of Oamaru, that in the late 70’s I used to DX with my car radio at Waitaki Boys High School, prior to the start of night-classes and I recall vividly one night when R. Tropicana from Ecuador was belting in on 540kHz!

My early DXploits were in Reed St, where Dad had run an aerial from the house into the back yard. This aerial powered my crystal sets and the mantle radio though at this early stage I didn’t know what DX was, and hearing 4XO in Dunedin and Radio Hauraki in Auckland were my chief accomplishments. I attended my first North Otago Branch meeting shortly before we shifted.

In April 1974 we moved across town to Stour St, and an aerial was quickly installed down the section. I lived there till Linda and I married in 1982 and by that time, there were several aerials in place and the Philips’, ZC-1 and Barlow Wadley had all aided in lifting my QSL tally.

When we first married, we lived atop Eden St in rented accommodation and the only aerial possibility was a short wire from the spare bedroom down the section for about 15 metres. DX from Waianakarua was much better so little listening went on, yet on one very memorable occasion I was tuning around and found a signal with C&W music on 570kHz… not knowing what to expect, I stayed listening and was stunned when the station identified as WNAX Yankton, South Dakota!

We purchased our own place in Avon St. later that year, high over Oamaru with good views out to the sea. My indoor loop aerial performed very well under the concrete tile roof which suggests that they don’t perform so well under metallic rooves. From Avon St. I managed some great logs, namely R Seychelles 1368kHz, Reunion 729kHz, Bahamas 1540kHz and pride of place, Manx Radio 1368kHz.

In 1991, needing a bigger section and more convenience, we shifted to Greta St. Also with a concrete tile roof, the loop once again proved itself with MW logs of several Brazilians, Uruguayans and Argentines. An 11-metre high pole provided a good position to run wires from, yet reception seemed to deteriorate largely due to the onset of a noisy environment.

The problem of electrical inference became so severe (due to every new appliance seemingly emitting injurious QRM), that I embarked on a process of eliminating the noise as much as possible, yet retaining marital bliss (i.e. thoughts of replacing our flash, new electronic washing machine with a wash-board weren’t considered for very long). A new, efficient aerial system capable of returning DX to the dials resulted.

MW Latins

As mentioned earlier, I have always been more into DX than SWLing, and despite the poor verification rate and relative difficulty in receiving them, MW Latins have drawn me like a magnet! At first it was definitely the difficulty in hearing them that enticed me, then coming to grips with the language and overcoming the stigma of poor reply rates. End result, after hundreds of hours swooping across the dials – over 300 MW Latins verified… and I ain’t finished yet!

Like most DXers, I went through a relatively quiet spell. In 1980 other matters (a steady girlfriend – later wife) seemed more important. I even sold the Barlow Wadley and was receiver-less for about 6 months.

My radio interests weren’t strictly limited to SW & MW. I did have a fling with utilities on a couple of occasions and chased FM DX from 1986 till 1992, verifying 5 countries including KSBS Pago Pago, American Samoa, 92.1MHz 3kW and 4100km distant! I also owned a CB set and was very active in the late 70’s, and operate as a licenced ham in the mid 80’s… yet none of these diversions tempted me like MW & SW DX and were ‘shelved” for a future date!


My first Convention was at Otaki’s “Tatum Park” in February 1976. Fellow North Otago Branch members Peter Grenfell, John Newman and Phil Hope flew north to Wellington where we were met by Wellington Branch members are driven to a rendevous at Avalon before heading out to the site. Notable DXers in attendance included Tony King, Bryan Clark, Chris Martin, Barry Williams, Tony King, Harry Weatherley, Robin Chambers, John Durham, David Ricquish & Ray Crawford.

We were assigned cabins to sleep in though I quickly spied a Drake SPR-4 belonging to Derek Benfell (and now owned by Bryan Clark) which Ash Nallawalla and I shared for some memorable logs. Reception was very good and I’m sure propagation was favourable. Net result: very, very little sleep until the flight home and a heap of reports taken.

Reports were sent to Singapore 790, AIR Rajkot 1070, Hong Kong 610, VOA Rhodes 1259, Burma 955, CFRB 1010, Muich 1602 and heaps more.

Other things to lodge in the memory were the famous “Radio Guano” broadcast; Bryan Clark running around in his night-shirt to talk to CJVB’s Theo Donnelly on the phone; bad weather – good reception; Copal digital clocks; Paul Edwards and I falling asleep during one of those awe-inspiring talks; fish pie (oh! how I hate fish pie..); a super-hot curry enjoyed enormously by Ash; a visit to Avalon hosted by the late Bill Pearson; Nigel Robins waxing lyrical in Russian; the plane home delayed by 6 hours; Cook Islands specials; logging Afars & Issas on Tony Marr’s R-4.

The following year off to another Convention. We rendevouz’ed at Bob Boundy’s for lunch then a visit to Radio Avon and off to the site, the ex-army barrack complex of Otokitoki Camp at Godley Heads, overlooking the Pacific. What a beautiful site for DXing! Some top DXers participated, e.g. Paul Aronsen, Keith Barton, Merv Branks, Sutton Burtenshaw, Ian Cattermole, Norm Maguire, Ernie Moore and Zmike Smith.

Logs were made of R Caymans 1555, HJER R Pacifico 1030, HJPM R Galeon 1450, R Paradise 1265, OBZ4N R Union 880, VL2NI Norfolk Is 1570 50 watts, KHLO 850, R Jumbo 545, HCNY2 R Cristal 870, ZYD71 Reloggio Federal 4906.5, RRI Semarang 3935, Sana’a 9780, RTM Tanger 9615, Sri Lanka 15425, AIR Lucknow 3205 &, RRI Mataram 3223.

Lingering memories: Keith Glover from Radio Australia enchanting us all; KFC for dinner; a trip to Akaroa in Phil Brooks’ low-level flying machine; Brian Withers’ car running out of water on the way up the steep hill; Professor of Overalls Gerald Harper’s exact compass pointings; Norm MaGuire losing his contact lens in the latrine; Chris Martin running aerials down a cliff; “Yellow Bird” emanating from R Caymans on 1555kHz; good weather – good reception; more sleep this time!

For the third year in a row, it was off to a convention. This one at the legendary Tiwai and a number of top DXers were in attendance, amongst them Steven Greenyer, Eric McIntosh, John Allchin & Eddie Macaskill.

Expectations were for some terrific loggings. Amongst them HJEW R Reloj 1110, R Paradise 1265, Vienna 1476, Kosice, Czechoslovakia1520, HJLK R Calidad 1230 & Sennar, Sudan 1296.

Eventful moments: Leo Meizenbeek’s pantry; DXing on Ash Nallawalla’s homebrew KR-1000 receiver; logging Sudan 1296kHz by gas-light in the caravan with Bryan Clark; the ship-wreck on the beach; lunch at the Avenal; the 4ZA/E test; strange goings-on in the shearing shed;

Best DX catches: (* indicates a pirate)


Niue 620, VOA Thailand 1580, Russia 620, PJB 800, WBZ 1030

Brasilia 15245,


WHO 1040, DZAS 680, KXYZ 1320, FEN Japan 1580, WMAQ 670, Cyprus 1322, Tropicana 540, Poland 1502, Bulgaria 1223, XEPOP 1490, WXLE 1385, HJVC 1190

Prague 21700, R España Independiente 7690, Luxembourg 6090, RRI Ujung Padang 4985, VOA Munich 3980 8kW, AFAN 6012 & 7050


WENN 1320, Paradise 1265, CMJG 1269, Kuwait 539, KDB 1490, KVEN 1450, WIZM 1410, Hong Kong 610 & 545, Burma 955, DWRF 1470, AFN Taiwan 1550, VOA Rhodes 1259, CFRB 1010, Turkey 1016, Munich 1602, Monaco 1466, KATZ1600, KCRG 1600, HJFN 950, DYLA 1550, WGY 810, Sharjah 1575, Malta 1570, Nice 1554, Vatican 1529, CFRN 1260, KXEN 1010, Colo Colo 1380, HJLK R Calidad 1230, Campesina 605, Colosals 1005, HJEDR Vigia 820, Pakistan 580, Baghdad 1196, Guatemala 1600, Hungary 1187, Italy 1115, RTVM Malacca 1005, Cyprus 1232, KXEL 1540, WCBS880

Ivory Coast 4940, Bandirma Met Stn 6900, Afars & Issas 4780, Congo 4843, Clarin 4850, Togo 5047, Ghana 4980, Gabon 3350, Brunei 7250, Zaire 4880, Galei Zahal 2442, R Centinela del Sur 4891, Kenya 4915, ELWA4770, Belize 3300, Congo 4765, DUH2 6170,

1977 (SW – 215, MW – 105)

R Triyaya Sakti 1545 500w, KUAM 610, CB138 R Colo-Colo 1380, YVRS R Margarita 1020, HJAQ R Miramar 1270,OAX4U R America, RRI Sumenep 1097, RRI Jember 963, RRI Surakarta 974, RRI Jayapura 1052 HJFZ La Voz del Centro 1055, HCDE2 R Punto 945, RTV Malaysia Kota Kinabalu 1475, RTVM Kuala Lumpur 885, RTVM Mersing 1055, XZK1 Rangoon 955, RTV Brunei 895, RNE Sevilla 683, DXLL 1047, WAKR 1590, JOIR 1260, KJNP 1170, DZRH 650, HJBS Punto Cinco 1490

R Andorra 6230 3.5kW, CXA19 R El Espectador 11835, La Voix du Zaire 15245 & 15350, TWR Swaziland 4760 30kW, R Hargeisa 11646, Bangui 5038, Maldives 4740 & 4754, RRI Sibolga 5260, Conakry 4910, Lama-Kara 3222, Tanzania 5050 & 6005, Sierra Leone 3316, Malawi 3380, Grenada 15105, SABC 4835 & 4880, Guinea Bissau 4780, Azores 4865, Brazzaville 15190, Chad 4904.5, Luanda 3330 & 4820, Kampala 4976, Ibadan 6050, Ikorodu 7275, Surinam 4780, Benin 4870, CP136 R Abaroa 4738, Togo 7264, Jos 5965, CFRX 6070 1kW, Mebo II 6210, Mozambique 11820, Yaounde 4925, Mauritania 4845, YVQJ R Universidad 3395, Garoua 5010, Upper Volta 4815, OAX2I R Inca del Peru 4810, R Mineria 9750, SODRE 15273.5, Fr. Guyana 4972, Afghanistan 15365, RKPDK Sumbawa 3778 250w,
RKPDK Tuban 3762 250w, Laos 4650 & 7145, Lebanon 11755

1978 (SW – 251, MW – 77 logs)

RRI Banjarmasin 1134, KYOR 1450 250w, DZDL 1423, Westdeutscher Rundfunk 1586, WSZD 1450, V of Vietnam 803, DXED 1016, KTIP 1450 250w, KICY 850, JOUO 1460 1kW, R Pakistan 585, KLOU 1580 1kW, WUNI 1410, WBBM 780, KBOX 1480 1kW

Djibouti 4780, Dubai 6040, Surinam 4850, Aden 11770, Conakry 15308, Tanzania 15435, SABC R5 3320, Rhodesia 3306, Comoros 3331, Kenya 4804, Benin 4870, Senegal 4890, Kampala 15325, Yaounde 4850, Ghana 3350, Lesotho 4800, CP58 R Progreso 6005, Sierra Leone 5980, Nicaragua 5950

1979 (SW – 36, MW – 33 logs)

KEYS 1440 1kW, WOC 1420, KCOW 1400 250w, WHAM 1180, KIKN 1590 500w, KRCQ
1400 250w, KSPT 1400 250w

Libya 5980, Luanda 7245, Lebanon 15285, CKFX 6080 10w, CFCX 6005 500w, R RSA

1980 (SW – 11, MW – 4 logs)

KNIX 1580, CJVB 1470, YJB1 Vanuatu 1125, WVUV 1120

Surinam 4850, HCJB 26020 100w, Eq Guinea 4926 & 5005, Iceland 12175

1981(SW – 24, MW – 1 log)

Caribbean Beacon 1610

Lebanon 6550, Guyana 5950, Afghanistan 15077, R 290, Dublin 6287, Mogadishu 9585, R Dublin 6909, Apintie 5006, Paraguay 11915

1982 (SW – 18, MW – 44)

R Paradise, St Kitts 825; YVWP R Apolo 1320 1kW; RFO Cayenne 1070; HCRO3 Ondas Orenses, Machala 915 1kW; VOA Antigua 1580; TGK R Cultural 1240; HJKX R Mundial 1370 1kW; OBX4J Estacion X 985 5kW;

Mauritius 4855, Omdurman 5039, Burma 5985, Phnon-penh 11938, Mali 11960, El
Salvador 9553, RTV Hong Kong 3940, 4VEH 11835, Aden 6005, Cape Verde 7154,
BBC Lesotho 6190, Falklands 2370,

1983 (SW – 68, MW – 109)

WIBW Topeka KS 580; HJPX R Olimpica 1480 1kW; HJTY Ondas del Carare 1410 1kW; OBX4D R Reloj 1520 1kW; FRO Martinique 1310; 4VEF Cap Haitien 840; 4VGA R Metropole 1280; 4VRS R Soleil 1170; WIOD Miami 610; WOW Omaha 590; OAX1C R Delcar 1520 1kW; HCCS5 R Calidad 1445 5kW; KTXZ West Lake Hills TX 1560 2.5kW; Caribbean Beacon, Anguilla 690; WXVI Montgomery AL 1600 1kW; KOLT Scottsbluff NE 1320 1kW; KSJB Jamestown ND 600; CBJ Chicoutimi PQ 1580; KDKA Pittsburgh 1020; WOKB Winter Garden FL 1600

Falklands 3958, Kaduna 4770, OBX5A R Esmeraldas 3800 1kW, CKZN 6160 300w,
LRA34 R Nac Mendoza 6179, CHNX 6130 500w, CE608 R Patagonia 6080, CB957
Diego Portales 9572

1984 (SW – 24, MW 136)

LRA R Nacional 870; KUAM Agana 612; RRI Surabaya 855; RRI Jember 963; LRA23 R Nacional 910; WIXO Mobile AL 1360; CBC Bridgetown, Barbados 900; WKJB Mayaguez PR 710; R Belize 834; JBC James Hill, Jamaica 790; HRKN La Voz de Olancho 705; HTC555 R 19 de Julio 555; KNOM Nome AK 780; KCJJ 1560 1kW; WSUN St Petersburg 620; CBK Watrous SK 540; R Trinidad 610; WPTF Raleigh NC 680; HOL80 R Nacional 840; V of Barbados 790; HRXX R Rumbos 1304 1kW; KYAK Anchorage AK 650; KFQD Anchorage AK 750; KICY Nome AK 850; KGTL Homer AK 620; WSIX Nashville TN 980;

R Sandino 6200, KPRC 6275, Mali 4783, Djibouti 4780, Damascus 12085, Venceremos 6556, R 15 de septiembre 5555, Bangui 5034, R Africa 15106

1985 (SW – 5, MW – 94)

DW Cyclops 1566; R Moscow, Vinnitsa 1548; WDR Langenburg 1593; Yemen 1188; HIAQ R Amanecer 1571; CW1 R Colonia 550; CX16 R Carve 850; LR6 R Mitre 790; LU2 R Bahia Blanca 840; LRA16 R Nacional, La Quiaca 580; ZYK278 R Gaucha 600; LR1 R El Mundo 1070; ZYK522 R Record 1000; LR3 R Belgrano 950, LRA7 R Nacional, Cordoba 750, LU14 R Provincias 830; LU20 R Chubut 580; LW1 R Universidad 580 (three Argies on 580kHz!), WKJB R Reloj PR 580; CJBC Toronto ON 860; WABC New York 770; LR9 R America 1190; LV16 R Rio Cuatro 1010; SBC Sarnen, Switzerland 1566; WREC Memphis TN 600; Dominica 595; R St Vincent 705; KHAR Anchorage 590; HCMB2 Voz Porteña 1425 0.5kW; TGMU Union R 1302; OAX1N R Ideal 1410 1kW; HCBO5 R Espectaculo 905 1kW; HOL— R Nacional, Bocas del Toro 1015; KSON San diego CA 1240 0.489kW; TWR Monte Carlo 1467; R Luxembourg 1440 (long-path); CBR Calbary AB 1010; WTIX New Orleans 690; CBW Winnipeg MT 990; WGTR Fort Myers FL 1440 1kW;

Eq Guinea 5005, Conakry 4910, Falklands 2380

1986 (SW – 24, MW – 125)

KGGF Coffeyville KS 690; CX20 R Monte Carlo 930; WJR Detroit MI 760; R Rani, Surinam 914; Caribbean R Lighthouse, Antigua 1165; JBC Old Harbour 850; KBYR Anchorage 700; KIAK Fairbanks 970; ZYK694 R Globo 1100; LS10 R del Plata 1030; LS6 R Buenos Aires 1350; LU14 R Provincias 880; HOU84 R Belen 1175; KFAR Fairbanks AK 660, KCSY Soldotna AK 1140; LR2 R Argentina 1110; KDLG Dillingham AK 670; ZDK Antigua 1100; YSS R Nacional 655; R Belize 830; CFGM Richmond Hills ON 1320; CBA Moncton NB 1070; HOL82 R Nacional 1080; ZGBC Dominica 1060; Emis Villa Verde, Macau 735; R Caribbean, St Lucia 840; RAI R Uno 1575; HOH4 Ciruito RPC 580 & 610; KIYU Galena AK 910; KRSA St Petersburg 580;

Namibia 3270, Burkina Faso 4815, Zambia 4910, Bangui 5034, CFVP 6030 100w

1987 (SW – 41, MW – 95)

TGRH R Horizontes 1480 1kW; TGKL R Emperador 910; CKRM Regina SK 1320; ZYJ458 R Globo 1220; LRI209 R Mar del Plata 670; LRA27 R Nacional, Catmarca 730; LS4 R Continental 590; RFO St Pierre et Miquelon 1375; KPEN Homer AK 620; ZYK205 R Farroupilha 680; ZYJ455 R Tupi 1280; JBC Kingston 560; ZYI420 R Vila Real, Cuiaba 590 5kW; LV1 R Colon 560; LU16 Emis Atlantico 1120; CX8 R Sarandi 690; CX30 La Radio 1130; CX4 R Rural 610; LS1 R Municipal 710; LRA24 R Nacional, Rio Grande 640; LRA21 R Nacional, Santiago del Estero 1130; TDF Lille 1377; SWF Rheinsender 1017; DDR Burg 1575; ABBS St Johns, Antigua 620; LRA15 R Nacional, San Miguel de Tucuman 1190; LRA2 R Nacional, Viedma 1150 1kW; LRA4 R Nacional, Salta 690; LRA6 R Nacional, Mendoza 960; LV9 R Salta 1160; Bulgaria 1161; Romania 153 & 855; TDF Rennes 711; CX28 R Imparcial 1090; ZYJ459 R Mundial 860; ZP36 R Ypoa 996; TDF Allouis 162; ZYJ453 R Jornal 940; CA156 R Parinacota 1564 0.5kW; CJCL Toronto ON 1430; EFJ15 Barcelona 1107; RNE Murcia 855; TDF Strasbourg 1161; RCE Valencia 1314; Lao National R 580; WAVG Loiuseville KY 970;

WSZO 4940, Eq Guinea 5040, Yaounde 4850, Mali 4835, SABC 4890, Tibet 4035, Conakry 4900, Bhutan 6035, Belize 3285, Angola 4953, RRI Mataram 3223, ZYE961 R Cultura 17815 1kW,

1988 (SW – 6, MW – 50)

XEBCO Colima 1210; WSMB New Orleans 1350; KLBS Los Baños 1330 ).5kW; WSZA Yap 1494

Mogadishu 6095, OAX7X R Hispana 5896 80w, LRA36 Argentine Antarctic 15476, IRRS 7162, Falling Star R 6240*,

1989 (SW – 3, MW – 33)

WDAF Kansas City, MO 610; WXOK Baton Rouge 1460 1kW; WRXB St Petersburg FL 1590; WMBM Miami Beach FL 1490 1kW; CHLO Toronto ON 1570; CJOY Guelph ON 1460; WBRD Palmetto FL 1420 1kW; WDAE Tampa FL; WQIK Jacksonville FL 1320; WMT Cedar Rapids IA 600;

Weekend Music R, Scotland 15043*, Bhutan 5023, ECR Italy 6205*

1990 (SW – 38, MW – 45)

KWES Colorado Sprongs, CO 1460 0.5kW; KKOA Kearney NE 1460 0.5kW; KAMA El Paso 750 1kW; WYFX Boynton Beach FL 1040 1kW; OAX4K R Imperial 1444 2kW; V6AK Chuuk 1593; WNWZ Germantown TN 1430 2.5kW;

R Phnon-penh 11938, V of Europe, Italy 7538*, Kenya 6150, Lesotho 4800, Namibia 7165 & 7190, Rainbow R, Germany 6240 12 w, Botswana 4830

1991 (SW – 18, MW – 24)

WQXR New York 1560; KATL Miles City MT 770 1kW; KSPE Santa Barbara CA 1490 1kW; KLOG Kelso WA 1490 1kW; OBX3D R Ancash 1516 3kW; OBX5D R Andahuaylas 1060; TILXX R Columbia 1160

Stolnik, Bulgaria 7670, HCJV7 Ecos del Oriente 3270, Madagaskar 5010, Aden 5970, R Fax, Ireland 6205 & 12255*, Bahrain 6010, Iceland 3295, Benin 5025

1992 (SW – 72, MW – 27)

WRXJ Jacksonville FL 930; WFLA Tampa FL 970; XEAR La Mexicana, Tampico 660 0.5kW; CC145 R Libertad 1450; ZGBC Dominica 740; R Caraibes Int, St Lucia 1090; CB93 R Nuevo Mundo 930; LS3 R Splendid 990; CB127 R Festival 1270; CJVR Melfort SK 1420; WKXY Sarasota FL 930; WERC Birmingham AL 960;

R Orang-Utan, Netherlands 6201.2*, V of Europe, Italy 13666*, WEED, USA 7415*, UN Radio via Bhutan 5025, WSKY, USA 7415*, East Coast Beer Drinker, USA 7415*, DLR Ireland 6220*, Jolly Roger R, Ireland 6232*, R Peace in Action, N Ireland, 6238*, Live Wire R, Ireland 7476*, Weekend Music R, Scotland 7380 & 6296*, R Mi Amigo, England 7425.6*, R Stella Int, Ireland 7446*, Jolly Roger R Int, USA 7415*, Lithuania 9710, St Helena 11092.5, Eritrea 7380

1993 (SW – 38, MW – 37)

HCJB1 La Vozde los Andes 690; CP1 R Nacional, La Paz 1390; R Muz, Ukraine 1431; R Thailand, Ranong 1593; R Ulan Bator 164; WAGL Lancaster SC 1560;

Ghana 6130, Latvia 5935, R Caroline, Ireland 6295*, Baku 4958, Mozambique 3210 & 3279, TWR Swaziland 3240, Uganda 5026, KJES 11715, R Gidday, Australia 11400 & 11412*, R Idea, Italy 7380*, DLR Ireland 6226*, Estonia 5925, R Merlin Int, Belgium 6238*, WEED, USA 7465*, Sudan 9165

1994 (SW – 5, MW – 52)

Vatican R 1611; JOXR Okinawa 783; Asgabat 1125; VOA Belkize 1530 & 1580; ZJB Montserrat 885; Caribbean Christian R, Turks & Caicos 1020; Jordan 1494; Turkey 1062; 4VRL R Liberte 1360; KXO El Centro 1230; R St Lucia 660; JBC Port Maria 750; SER R Linares 1602; RNE5 Teruel 1107; WTOP Washignton DC 1500; KIRL St Charles LA 1460 0.5kW; CJME Regina SK 1300; KLTC Dickinson ND 1460

R Copán Int 15675, Eq Guinea 5004, R Speranza 6233*, Botswana 3356

1995 (SW – 100, MW – 38)

WAOZ Cincinnatti OH 1360; CC68 R Nueva Ines de Suarez 860; RNE Arganda 1359; KUSA1600 Las Vegas 1660; AIR Nagpur 1566; JOAR Nagoya 1053; HJZE R Estrella 1510 1kW; WFFG Marathon Key FL 1300; XEACC La Voz del Puerto 870 1kW; SER Alcoy 1485

Bremen 6190, Moldova 7245, Dneistr 11750

1996 (SW – , MW – 50)

WJDM Elizabeth NJ 1660; WANM Tallahassee FL 1070; WAMR Venice FL 1320; WTMY Sarasota FL 1280 0.5kW; V of Nevis 895; ZP1 R Nacional 920; LV3 R Cordoba 700; V of Russia, Wachenbrunn 1323; WWFE Miami FL 670; Deutschlandfunk, Heusweiler 1422; TDF Limoges 792; R Eviva, Beromunster 1566; SER Santander 1485; DW Mt Angel 702; NOZEMA Flevoland 747; SER Sevilla 792; R Euzkadi, Vitoria 963; WRNE Gulf Breeze FL 980; RNE San Sebastian 774; RDP Terceira, Azores 693; XEPC Zacatecas 890 1kW;

Christian Voice 4965, R Lajas 5498, R San Ignacio 6746, R Amauta 5139, R Huarmaca 5485, R ABC 7570, IRRS3985, Christian Voice 3330, Tele Monte Carlo 7500*, R Altura 6480, Tele R Stereo, Roma 6012*

1997 (SW – , MW – 138)

KSIX Corpus Christi 1230; R Baku, Azerbaijan 1296; V of Russia, Moldova 1467; WQA767 Dallas-Fortworth 1640 & 1680 0.06kW; RTVA Ouargla, Algiers 198; ZYJ754 R Guaruja 1420; ZYK537 R Capital 1040; LT3 R Cerealista 680; Yemen 760; WGN Chicago Il 720; Vietnam 783; CBM Montreal PQ 940; Al-Kharanah, Jordan 207;

Farmers From Holland 6299*, R Free London 5804.7*, Free Radio Service Holland 6276*, Laser Hot Hits 6218*, R Bandonica 11470*, East Coast Radio Holland 11485*


WPHG Atmore AL 1620; R Esmeralda, Buenos Aires 1620; LS11 R Provincias 1270; R Vision Cristiana, Turks & Caicos 530; R 12-70 Aruba 1270 1.5kW; 4VSJ R Antilles 1240; WMDM Lexington Park, MD 1690; WJNZ Ada MI 1680;

R FJR 6955*, R Caliente 6955*, Zambia 6265, Free Hope Experience 6955*, Mystery R 6955*, Alfa Lima Int, Netherlands 6270*, Crazy Wave R, Germany 11515*, Take It Easy Radio 6955*, Reflections Europe, Ireland 6295*, R San Marino 11410*, Latvia 5935, R Marabu, Germany 6210*, R Free Vinyl 6955*, R Nonsense 6955*


WTDY Madison WI 1670; WHKT Portsmouth VA 1650; LRI200 R Puerto Deseado, 740 1kW; CX24 R Nuevo Tiempo 1010; WQSN Kalamazoo WI 1660; WRNC Warner-Robins GA 1670; LRL202 R Diez 710; WKSH Sussex WI 1640; WMIB Marco Is FL 1660; ZP14 R Nanduti 1020; CB157 R Famila 1570; WTTM Princeton NJ 1680;

R Tanzania Zanzibar 11734, R Myanmar 5985, Zimbabwe 5012, R Free London 15070*, SWRS Italy 21890*, Spaceman R, Netherlands 6260*, Conakry 7125, Alfa Lima Int 6290, Alfa Lima Int, Netherlands 15070*,


LT9 R Brigadier Lopez 1150; CX32 Radiomundo 1170; LS5 R Rivadavia 630; R Tropical, Buenos Aires 1620; ZYJ453 Sistema LBV 940; R Buen Aire, Buenos Aires 1630;

R Liberte, Congo 15725, Borderhunter, Netherlands 15795*, R Black Arrow, Netherlands 15807*, R Gaalkayo 6985, R Hargeisa 7530, R Caroline, Ireland 6289*, Voice of the Netherlands 7485*


WLEO Ponce, Puerto Rico 1490; WGIT Canovanas, Puerto Rico 1660, CKMW 1570, CKEG 1570.

Tower R, Netherlands 6306*, Spaceman R, Netherlands 6289*, Wrekin R, England 12256, Laser Hot Hits 7459.5*, R Ozone Int 7489.5*, R Black Power 6281.5*, Uke Senderen 7215, Information R 8700, R Black Arrow 6236*, Swinging Radio England 6276.4*, R Nova Int, England 9290 & 6289*, Rwanda 6055